Sushruta is the father of surgery 2,000 years ago. He and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like caesareans, cataract, joining artificial limb, fractures, urinary stones removal, plastic surgery, and even brain surgery. Usage of anesthesia was well-known in ancient India, Over 125 surgical equipment were used. Deep knowledge of anatomy, physiology, etiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient texts.

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